Emissions Trading Systems: a Webliography.
This edition of WWWTools for Education continues to explore responses to evidence of climate change. The theme was introduced in Limits of Computer Modeling: Implications for Government Decisionmaking (WWWTools for Education: September 07, 2008), and in this edition we present a webliography supporting a greater understanding of Emissions Trading Systems. The next edition in this series will cover the broader range of other mitigation and adaptation strategies being proposed for dealing with climate change.
Most of these words and phrases are becoming increasingly familiar:
(Merriam-Webster) -“of, relating to, or resulting from the influence of human beings on nature
“; as in “most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic (man-made) greenhouse gas concentrations
” – Summary for Policymakers
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
– “companies are set an emissions ceiling and must hold sufficient permits to meet that limit. If they exceed the target, they buy permits from businesses that have undershot their quotas.
” (Australian Emissions Plan to Compensate Households (Update3) –
Gemma Daley : Bloomberg
: July 16, 2008)
: Entitlement Certificates
issued by the UNFCCC to implementers of approved CDM projects; each represents one tonne of carbon dioxide or equivalent Greenhouse Gas. See Pay Or Get Paid for GHGs (IIPM: September 26, 2008)
CARBON NEUTRAL: using a CARBON OFFSET to neutralise the CARBON FOOTPRINT of a given action – explained in:
CLEAN COAL: the oxymoron of all time, and probably a phrase that diminishes the credibility of sequestration elements of the debate – a pity, considering the positioning of CCS as a crucial element among solutions.
What is Clean Coal Technology?
(Sarah Dowdey / HowStuffWorks
) gives a general overview of the multiple technologies either in use or under development.
: 3 phrases from Greenland – “Just a few years ago ..
.”; “I’ve never seen that before…”
; “Well usually … but now I don’t know anymore
.” See Learning to Speak Climate (Thomas L. Friedman / IHT: August 06, 2008)
Climate Change Update.
Now that we have the Garnaut Climate Change Review Final Report, it makes sense to look at its final take on climate change – see especially:
The Report does not attempt to independently evaluate the scientific knowledge relating to climate change. It emphasises the uncertainties inherent in the qualified and contested nature of available scientific evidence, climate sensitivity being the largest of these uncertainties.
It draws extensively on the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, and uses the IPCC definition of climate change.
– the importance of maintaining an ambitious mitigation target in order to avoid high-consequence impacts of climate change. Covers:
- 4.1 How has the climate changed?
- 4.2 Understanding climate change projections
- 4.3 Projected climate change
- 4.4 Assessing climate risk
– notwithstanding the unpredictable nature of weather and the difficulty of separating anthropogenic factors from others, this Chapter covers:
- 5.2 How climate has changed in Australia, in terms of temperature, rainfall patterns, streamflows, ocean temperatures, the El Niño – Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode phenomena, cyclones and storms, bushfires, and heatwaves.
- 5.3 Projected climate change in Australia.
references, slide presentations, additional emission figures, data files
, and a description of data sources and calculations.
Emissions Trading Systems – Overview Documents.
(UNFCCC) – ETS allows countries that have unused emission units to sell excess capacity to countries that have exceeded their targets; commodification of emission reductions or removals; identifies other trading units in the carbon market.
Market Mechanisms (International Emissions Trading Association
, 2008) – an introduction to emission reduction trading markets.
Inside WCI: Linking
(Eric de Place / Daily Sightlin
e: August 04, 2008) – how different cap and trade programs can coexist.
Australian Comment: a Mixed Bag.
Coming Clean on Climate Change
(Leon Gettler / Age
: August 10, 2008) – 48% of Australia’s largest 200 companies will probably suffer severely from climate change; Australian companies are also doing less to address the problem.
ETS Initiatives around the World.
The European Union’s Emissions Trading System in Perspective (A. Denny Ellerman, Paul L. Joskow / Pew Center on Global Climate Change: May 2008) – the world’s first cap-and-trade emissions program; emphasis on its role as a work in progress providing perspective on problems in constructing a global ETS.
See especially Section IV. Controversies, covering issues of windfall profits, the allocation process and over-allocation, volatility of EUA prices, and tlinkage provisions.
EU Parliament Backs Climate Plan
(Quirin Schiermeier / Climate Feedback
: October 08, 2008) – from 2013, power stations will not receive free emission allowances; free allowances to manufacturing industries to be phased out by 2020; some concessions to industry.
The Western Climate Initiative
– launched in February 2007: is a collaboration of seven U.S. governors and four Canadian Premiers. Aims to “identify, evaluate and implement collective and cooperative ways to reduce greenhouse gases in the region, focusing on a market-based cap-and-trade system.”
Chicago Climate Exchange
– “marketplace for integrating voluntary legally binding emissions reductions with emissions trading and offsets.”
(EPA) of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2008
(designed to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions through the development of a market driven system of tradable allowances), and related legislation.
Many of the problems and issues raised by ETS proposals, legislation and implementation are already apparent from readings already cited. Here are a few more that specifically highlight concerns.
Climate Change Policy
(Joshua Gans, speaking at the University of Melbourne / CoreEcon
: October 08, 2008) – Australia’s ETS is not a diversified strategy. Need to:
- cover measurement and political issues by investing in other direct ways of reducing emissions.
- deal in a price-sensitive manner with trade-exposed industries rather than industry-by-industry.
- cover innovation directly.
- seek broader pollution abatement opportunities and target them.
CONCERTED GLOBAL RESPONSE REQUIRED:
(Valentina Bosetti, Carlo Carraro, Massimo Tavoni / Feem Working Paper 70.08, September 2008)
COSTS OF EMISSION REDUCTION:
Rudd’s Carbon Scheme Chokes
(Paul Kelly / Australian
: August 06, 2008) – “Australia’s emissions trading model cannot work… is misconceived and … will damage Australia’s economy with almost no prospect of solving the global problem.”
INTEGRATING THE GLOBAL MARKET:
Justice and Climate Change
(Eric A. Posner and Cass R. Sunstein / Harvard Project on International Climate Agreements Discussion Paper
08-04, September 2008)
Emissions Trading and Offsets
– lists emissions trading, joint implementation and CDM solutions undertaken by members of The Pew Center’s Business Environmental Leadership Council.
King’s Global Warming Collection
(King’s College Library, University of Cambridge) – “greenhouse gases, the ozone layer, carbon trading and carbon sequestration, fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear energy, energy storage and distribution, and the hydrogen economy”.
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS:
– free online game, won the 2008 European Green IT
award. Players guide Europe through the 21st century, making tough choices along the way.
– newsletter for the emissions market place. including news, prices, links and commentary.
(Joseph Romm / Center for American Progress Action Fund
) – climate science, climate solutions, and climate politics; links to categorised resources in the sidebar.
PAPERS AND REPORTS:
The Garnaut Climate Change Review: Final Report